Day 2 :
St. Philip’s College, USA
Time : 09:45-10:25
Solomon Nfor holds a PhD degree in Higher Education and Administration from the University of the Incarnate Word, and two Master’s degrees in Biotechnology (University of Texas at San Antonio) and Zoology (University of Buea). He is also a Nurse and a Medical Laboratory Technologist. He is the Founder and Coordinator of St. Philip’s College Jessica’s Project, a civic engagement organization geared at educating students on current diseases. He has presented at several conferences in the USA.
Jessica’s project is a non-profit organization affiliated with the with St. Philip’s College in San Antonio, Texas. It is a civic engagement project that brings faculty, staff and students together impact change on various topics including education into diseases associated with diet, teenage and unplanned pregnancy, the operation of community gardens and hunger banquets. The author will present, high impact practices in teaching nutrition in disproportionately low-in minority institutions using civic engagement. How to develop research interest in science students on the topic of nutrition, and getting students involved in demystifying concepts of nutrition and health. Because of their low-income status, many east side citizens resigned on healthy lifestyle as being associated with the rich and affluent. A notion we are intent to erase by the special collaborative program engineered by our team at St. Philip’s College include, encouraging healthy eating habits through lunch and learn workshops at the garden or various nutrition programs hosted by the churches, educating the community on foods and related diseases through active research by students and poster presentation, encouraging a culture of health in targeted population and increasing routine medical check-ups for adult and teenagers by hosting wellness week on campus with free medical check-up. This training presentation will give the participant an opportunity to design a community-based project. Participant Outcomes include designing a community based project, integrating learning assessment into civic engagement and critical reflection on the progress of project.
Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, USA
Keynote: Ready to use therapeutic supplementation in management of malnourished HIV-infected children in Tanzania
Time : 10:45-11:25
David Sando has 5 years of experience as the Monitoring and Evaluation Team Lead at the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in the Epidemiology Unit of the National AIDS Control Program (NACP). He was a Medical Officer In-charge at the Tanzania Heart Institute (THI), supervising and overseeing daily medical activities at the facility. He has extensive research experience, mostly pertaining to HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. He received his Doctor of Medicine at Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS), MSc in Health Monitoring and Evaluation at Jimma University in Ethiopia, and second MSc in Epidemiology from Harvard School of Public Health.
Introduction: Ready to use therapeutic food (RUTF) has been widely used as first line treatment for severe malnutrition in children infected with HIV. Limited evidence is available on its effectiveness when used in large public settings, with malnutrition cases due to various underlying causes.
Methods: In a HIV treatment program in Tanzania, a total of 1051 HIV-infected children with severe acute malnutrition (<3 BMI/WHZ), 86 exposed to RUTF (Plumpy'Nut, Nutriset) and 965 unexposed were selected for this study. The unexposed were treated according to the standard of care at that time which included Nutritional Assessment and Counseling (NAC) . The primary outcome was mean change in weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ)/body mass index score (BMIZ). Secondary outcomes included changes in immune suppression and hemoglobin levels (HG). Linear regression models were used to assess the 12-week changes in WHZ/BMIZ, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HG levels and a log-binomial model was fit to assess the statistical significance of any difference at 12 weeks for immunosuppression.
Results: At 12 weeks, the mean increase in WHZ/BMI was 1.60 in children who received RUTF and 1.59 in the control (P value=0.99). Among those who received RUTF, there was 52% reduction for those who had advanced or severe immune suppression as compared to 63% in control arm (P value=0.39). The mean change in ALT level was -1.72 among those who received RUTF as compared to 1.84 in control group (P value=0.31). HG increased in both arms, 0.74 among those on RUTF and 0.72 in the control group (P value=0.99).
Conclusion: The use of RUTF as first line management of severe malnutrition in HIV infected children should be directed to malnourished children caused by poor intake of food. In the correct setting, quality NAC may be equally effective to RUTF and this reflects the importance of treatment that is driven by underlying causes.
- Special Session
Location: Las Vegas
- Oral Session
Location: Las Vegas
La Trobe University, Australia
Gaikwad S M
Sanjeevanee College Chapoli, India
M/K Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd, Pakistan
Time : 11:25-11:45
Shaukat Hussain has completed his M. Sc. in Industrial Fishing at the age of 28 years from Astrakhan Technical University of Fisheries, Astrakhan, Ex-USSR (Russian Federation). Since then he worked in Marine Fisheries Department, Government of Pakistan, on different positions, and ultimately retired from the post of Director General on attaining the age of 60 years (retirement age) in November, 2015. Presently, he is working for M/K Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd, for development of new Fish Harbour in Gadani, as per the international food safety standards in the capacity of Managing Director. During his tenure as Director General in above department his major achievements were: (i) resumption of export of FFP, in 2013, to the EU which was suspended in 2007; (ii) accreditation of testing laboratories under ISO / IEC – 17025:2005 international standards (iii); introduction of TEDs for local shrimp trawl-nets to satisfy the import requirement under section 609 of U.S. Public Law and clearance of inspection carried out by officials of OES and NOAA of United States of America in 2014.
Large-sized gill-netters engaged in catching tuna and tuna like species through drifting gill-nets on the high seas is a great threat to food security and oceanic ecosystem worldwide. These gill-netters stay at sea from two (02) to four (04) weeks and bring back this high valued fish in such a deteriorated and un-wholesome condition that it fetches only 0.6 % of the price of the international market. A part from lack of proper preservation system on-board, the retention of net with entangled / gilled fish in water for around 15 to 20 hours has great contribution towards its spoilage. The second most important factor is that these drifting nets are major threat to oceanic pelagic ecosystem. Plenty of slack of netting between float-line and lead-line encourage entanglement of non-targeted species and marine mammals during fishing operations. Besides, the lost or discarded netting continue to act as “ghost fishing” for indefinite period of time which also entangle birds and marine mammals near the sea surface. Most of the data / information were collected from different sources which include statistical data published by Government departments, NGOs, fisheries organizations, interviewing skippers & crew of the boats, direct measurement of specification of net by the author, visits of fish landing sites and conducting sensory evaluation / organoleptic examination of landed catch, press media reports etc. The technical drawing of a typical gill-net specifies the netting material, hanging ratio (E), mesh size, floatation etc. Way forward and recommendations: Although many countries have taken number of steps to reduce the overall length of the drift gill-net up to 2.5 km; however, it seems that day by day increase in length of fishing boats will not satisfy the fishermen due to the reason that a net of only 2.5 km long will not be economically feasible for such large boats. Therefore, in order to avoid over capacity and to achieve co-management (i.e. environmental protection and food safety), these boats may be converted to use alternate environmental friendly fishing methods or less destructive fishing gears & practices (like tuna long-liners) with on-board preservation / freezing facilities, which will be very much welcomed by the fishermen as they will get best prices due to quality improvement. A pilot project focusing conversion of only 5-8 gill-netters into tuna long-liners (instead of introducing new tuna long-liners or allowing foreign flag tuna long-liners to operate in the EEZs of coastal states) will automatically attract the owners of fishing boats for conversion.
M.B. College, India
Time : 11:45-12:05
Dande K G has earned his MSc (Agri) in Animal Husbandry and Dairying in 1982, MPhil in Zoology (1997) and PhD in Dairy Science in 2012. Presently, he is working as an Associate Professor and Head of Department of Dairy Science. His research areas include livestock nutrition and management, dairy science, histological, histochemical and epidemiological studies in arthropod insets and parasites. He is the Ex-honorary Animal Welfare Officer, Animal Welfare Board of India, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India. He was the member of Academic Council and member and Chairman of Board of Studies in Dairy Science SRTM University. He is a frequent reviewer of national, international and indexed journals, and has published 10 research papers in national and 14 in international journals till date.
Milk is a product of biological origin and can accommodate any additive without apparent changes in its appearance. Milk is the almost perfect food that supplies all necessary nutrients hence its quality needed to be checked for adulteration. In the present investigation milk samples were collected from local dairy farmers (cow and buffalo breed) and analyzed in the laboratory for quality testing specifically adulteration in milk. The received raw milk samples were tested in laboratory for electrical conductivity and refractive index as control (T0) and then adulterated with water, sugar, starch, urea and salt of the concentration as treatment T1 (1%), T2 (2%), T3 (3%), T4 (4%), and T5 (5%), of the milk sample each respectively. The efforts were made to detect adulterants as to render the values of electrical conductivity and refractive index for these adulterants. The existing methods also were used to confirm these adulterants. Lots of test are generally carried out to test the various adulterants hence lots of rupees are also spent. The cost of production can be minimized by testing electrical conductivity and refractive index. If sample showing lower or higher electrical conductivity or refractive index means it is adulterated. Therefore only suspected samples should be separated and tested for specific test. In this way one can save cost of production and time on milk processing. From the present investigation it is concluded that various cow and buffalo breed milk has a specific value of electrical conductivity and refractive index. The electrical conductivity and refractive index of milk get changes when it is adulterated with water, starch, sugar, urea and salt.
King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Title: Effect of dietary supplementation with ginger continuously or intermittently in comparison with prebiotics on broiler performance and physiological and immunological response
Time : 12:05-12:25
Youssef A Attia has his expertise in evaluation feedstuffs and improving the health and wellbeing of the chickens. He has published bout 200 scientific full research papers. Recently, his research focuses on using phytogenic and natural products as safe and environmental friendly growth promoters for animal nutrition.
Broiler chickens (n=140), 7 days old, were used in a straight-run complete randomized experimental design. The broilers were distributed among four treatment groups with five replicates per treatment and seven chickens per replicate. During the experiment period (7-42 days old), the chickens were fed iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets with ginger level of 0.5 given either continuously or intermittently (two treatments), and mannan oligosaccharide of 0.05%, and the un-supplemented control. The intermittent treatment was given as two days per week. Feeding 0.5% ginger resulted in higher body weight gain, European production index (EPI) and economic efficiency (EE) than mannan oligosaccharide, however, feed conversion ratio was similar among different experimental groups. Ginger level of 0.5% continuously decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase, increased serum globulin, and 0.5% ginger intermittently increased antibody titer to Newcastle disease. Ginger given continuously or intermittently significantly decreased meat’s lipids and plasma glucose with intermittent supplementation showed stronger effect on meat’s lipids than continuous supplementation. Hence, it can be concluded that 0.5% ginger continuously gave better results than mannan oligosaccharide and had no negative effects on productive performance, carcass traits, meat quality, blood constituents and immune response as compared with the control and this warrant further investigation for improving food producing animals in respect to heath and product quality and safety.
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Title: In vitro antioxidant properties of agaricus bisporus protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions
Time : 12:25-12:45
Benard Muinde Kimatu has been working on Bioactive molecules especially peptides since 2014. He has co-authored several articles with his colleagues at the Nanjing Agricultural University, China, under the leadership of Prof. Qiuhui Hu. Over the years he has gained experience in the generation of bioactive peptides from food protein sources, their purification and determination of their amino acid sequence and their possible application as functional foods and nutraceuticals. Before joining Prof. Hu’s laboratory he had been teaching at the Department of Dairy and Food Science and Technology, Egerton University, Kenya.
In the recent years, attention has been directed towards enzymatic generation and use of bioactive peptides from food protein sources as natural antioxidants. Several reports have indicated that the activities of these peptides depend on the protein source, enzyme specificity, molecular weight, the degree of hydrolysis and amino acid composition. Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) is an edible fungus and the world’s leading cultivated mushroom with yields accounting for 70% of the total edible fungi. Several bioactivities from A. bisporus have been reported including ACE inhibitory activity, hypoglycaemic, antioxidant and antimicrobial. However, no reports have been made on the antioxidant potential of A. bisporus protein hydrolysate(s). In this study, A. bisporus mushroom protein isolate (MPI) was hydrolyzed using single (Alcalase, Pancreatin and Flavourzyme) and sequential (Alcalase-Pancreatin and Alcalase-Flavourzyme) enzymatic processes. The obtained hydrolysates (MPHs) were ultrafiltered to generate peptide fractions (UFs) of molecular sizes (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10 kDa). The electrophoretic profile results indicated that the enzymatic systems were efficient in hydrolyzing the MPI into low molecular weight peptides. Hydrolysate yields of >57% and protein recoveries of >43% were obtained. Effective concentration that scavenged 50% (EC50) of DPPH radicals was similar for the MPHs while inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation was strongest (66.49%) for Alcalase-Flavourzyme hydrolysate on day 5 of incubation. UFs exhibited a concentration-dependent Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Property (FRAP), with the highest activity for fractions from Alcalase and Pancreatin recorded in 1-3 kDa. Considering the yield and the antioxidant activity, the Pancreatin 1-3 kDa fraction was also used in the DNA damage assay, where it demonstrated significant oxidative protection against damage induced by Fenton’s reagent. The antioxidant activities of MPHs and their UFs suggested that they could be potential bioactive ingredients for use in the formulation of functional foods as well as natural antioxidants in lipid food systems.
Mahatma Basweshwar College, India
Time : 12:45-13:05
Chate D B is presently working as the Head and as an Assistant Professor of Botany. He has 22 years of teaching and research experience. He has published 14 research papers in national and international journals. He has also presented and attended many national and international conferences. He is working as a reviewer of some national and international journals. He has worked as the Board Member of the College and University Development. He is a recipient of the Rajashri Shahu Maharaj National Teacher Award. He is also working as the General Secretary, Teachers Association, SRT-MUCTA, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded. He is a life member of Bionano Frontiers Journal and Indian Aerobiological Society. He is also working as an Editor-in-Chief of Vision Research Journal.
Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea Linn.) is an important oil seed crop in many topical and warm temperature regions of the world. Oil seeds account for one ninth of the total agricultural production in India. The vegetable oil is extensively used for cooking purposes and in the manufacturing of soap and other by product. The residual cake is rich in nitrogen and is used as cattle feed or as manure for crop plants. During present investigation more emphasis has been given on the fungal components of air spora. Such aerobiological study is useful for obtaining an efficient forecasting system and preventing ground nut crop from the attack of disastrous airborne disease. The importance of studies of air spora over the groundnut crop field is to understand the dissemination and spread of airborne microbial components including pathogen in the atmosphere. The present investigation was carried out in two groundnut sampling fields i.e., Wagholi and Ausa. The present investigation was carried out to calculate the concentration of air borne pathogen causing groundnut diseases and to study the close relationship between the spore concentration, disease incidence, meteorological factors and growth stages of the groundnut crop. In present investigation air monitoring survey is carried out by using air sampler. Supporting to this work air sampler petri plates exposure method was used for 15 days regular interval. Two diseases are common over groundnut nut tikka leafs spot disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori and Cercospora personatum. During the present investigation the major fungal group Deuteromycetes, Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes have been found.
Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa
Time : 14:05-14:25
Njenyuei Gideon Agho is a Post-doctoral Fellow at the Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa. He has extended his valuable service for many years and has been a recipient of many award and grants. His experience includes various programs, contributions and participation in different events for diverse fields of study. His research interests reflect in his wide range of publications in various national and international journals.
The objective of the research was to examine how urban agriculture contributes to the sustainable livelihood of migrant women living in the inner city of Johannesburg, South Africa. The study focuses on the Cameroonian women community living in Turffontein. The study assesses the impact of urban agriculture on sustainable livelihood in the lives of Cameroonian women living in this suburb. It also examines the constraints encountered by these women in the practice of urban agriculture for sustainable livelihood. The study is based on a purposeful sample of Cameroonian migrant women living in the inner city of Johannesburg practicing urban agriculture. It uses a mixed method of approach with a transect walk to the area where this women practice the urban agriculture. It also included an in-depth face to face interactive interview and written sources such as journals, books and research reports where combined to gather relevant data. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings of this study reveal that urban agriculture is used as a strategy for sustainable livelihood among several Cameroonian migrant women in Turffontein. The study has also shown how through urban agriculture, these migrant women have been able to raise substantial income to support their respective families both in South Africa and in Cameroon. The study also shows the need to facilitate a proactive program that will support urban agriculture by low-income urban residents. And this can be done mostly through government policies and also through the municipal city’s review processes. The government should support the provisional use of urban farm projects and also encourage gardening in small spaces in the inner city of Johannesburg.
National University of Colombia, Colombia
Title: Physicochemical and sensory properties of a dairy product fortified with vegetables and dietary fiber
Time : 14:25-14:45
Amira-Liliana Rodríguez-Amayais a Chemical Engineer specialized in Food Process Engineering and Biomaterials, with a PhD in Food Science and Technology and a Master's degree in Agri-Food Engineering. He is a Full Professor at the Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Bogotá, since 2008. He is the Leader of the research group in Food Biomolecules. He has his research interests in the extraction and purification of bioactive molecules for their application in nutraceutical products and functional foods, as well as, on the design of processes for a profitable utilization of food industry by-products. In the last five years, he has carried out research studies in the development of functional dairy products.
Vitamin A and dietary fiber are nutrients of public health concern, because a deficiency in their consumption could increase the morbidity or mortality. Deficiency of vitamin A is a major problem in the child population of the developing countries. It is the main cause of the preventable childhood blindness, and contributes to various health problems during pregnancy and lactation. Moreover, the dietary fiber intake is still lower than that recommended by the FAO/WHO, although it is well known that it contributes to lowering the risk of weight gain, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colon cancer; diseases that now-a-days affect an important percentage of the world population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of a Petit-Suisse fortified with carrot and fructo-oligosaccharides. Various concentrations of both functional ingredients were evaluated, in an effort to develop a product that could be labeled as “good source of vitamin A and dietary fiber”. The obtained products were characterized in terms of their proximate composition, pH, acidity, syneresis index, total fructans, color, texture, vitamin A, mineral content, and fatty acids composition during 28 days of storage at 4ºC. The sensory properties were evaluated with a trained panel, through the score tests. It was found that products elaborated with 35% carrot puree, and fructo-oligosaccharides at a concentration equivalent to 20% of the daily recommended intake, displayed adequate physicochemical and sensory properties. These results indicate that fortification of dairy products with vegetables and dietary fiber has high potential to improve the nutritional value and health promoting effects of the dairy goods, since they can enhance the intake of nutrients of public health concern. From the market point of view, this study contributes to the development of new value-added dairy products, as a response of the current consumers’ demands.
Shri. Kumarswami College, India
Time : 14:45-15:05
Kadam K N is working as an Associate Professor in Zoology at Shri Kumarswami Mahavidyalaya Ausa, Latur (India). He was the recipient of Gold Medal during his Post-graduation in 1997. He did his PhD in 2002. He has 18 years of teaching experience to graduate students. He worked as Board of Study Member at Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded. He has attended many national and international conferences. He has published 8 research papers in national and international reputed journals.
Present investigation was carried out to study the effect of water quality on food quality of fishes. India is agriculture based country. Indian economy is mostly based on agricultural yield. In recent years due to global warming and El Niño effect, draught and heavy rainfall frequency is increased. Government of India is monitoring these changes in the environment and the government introduced various schemes including agricultural ponds. Farmers of India are accepting the changed situations and in accordance with that the agricultural ponds build by farmers. These ponds were used for supplying water for crop cultivation. Beside, these fishes get cultured by farmers in agricultural ponds. From the present investigation, it is concluded that the fishes which were cultured in agricultural pond coated by polythene, grow rapidly and were less infected by parasites like cestodes. In this study, fishes of natural water body were infected by cestodes, mostly as compared to artificial ponds.
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Time : 15:05-15:25
Malathi D, PhD, is specialized in the field of Food Science and Nutrition and has thirty five years of experience in teaching, research and extension. She is expert in various processing techniques and value added products from different food crops. She is involved in popularizing the developed technologies through demonstrations, radio talks, etc., that created awareness about the preservation, processing and therapeutic values. She has attended 13 national and 4 international training programs. She is conducting training programs on fruits and vegetables preservation, development of therapeutic bakery products, confectionery products and instant food mixes to farmers, industrial persons, entrepreneurs and general public. She has worked in 12 national and 4 international research projects and published 36 international and 75 national research papers.
Statement of the Problem: Standardization of cookies from multi millet grains. Millet is one of the oldest foods known to mankind and possibly the first cereal grain used for domestic purposes. Today millet ranks as the sixth most important grain in the world, sustains 1/3 of the world’s population. India is the largest producer of many kinds of millets, which includes sorghum (Sorghum vulgaris), pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), and other small millets like little millet, foxtail millet, Kodo millet, proso millet and barnyard millet. India accounts for 40% of global millet production. Millet grain is highly nutritious with good quality protein, rich in minerals, dietary fiber, phyto-chemicals and vitamins. Small millets have potential benefits to mitigate or delay the onset of complications associated with diabetes. Millets, being high fiber foods contribute to well-being in various ways by reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, constipation, diabetes mellitus and cancer. They are also valued for natural antioxidants and minerals and are gaining importance as complete nutrient source.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The present study focuses on standardizing cookies incorporated with four different millet flour viz., Kodo millet, little millet, foxtail millet and finger millets with wheat flour at different levels (20 - 80 percent) and organoleptically evaluated using nine point hedonic scale.
Findings: The cookies prepared from wheat flour, Kodo, little, foxtail and finger millet flours at each 20 per cent level were highly acceptable. Moisture, carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, calcium and iron content of the standardized cookies were found to be 2.99%, 61.55 g, 5.88 g, 28.22 g, 0.44 g, 51.22 mg and 4.65 mg/100 g, respectively.
Conclusion & Significance: Hence, millet is an amazing grain offering great opportunities for diversified utilization and value addition.
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Title: Effect of parboiling (thermal treatment) on de-hulling and cooking qualities of little millet (Panicum sumatrense) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica)
Time : 15:25-15:45
Varadharaju N, PhD, is having expertise in reducing the post-harvest losses in perishables, for which he has contributed and established a Food Processing Business Incubator at the Post Harvest Technology Centre, TNAU, Coimbatore. His contributions in the development of processing machinery are noteworthy to mention. He has operated three international and four national research projects. He was instrumental in design and development of double chamber centrifugal de-huller for millets, for which he was conferred with a national award. He has got three decades of teaching and research experience in the field of Food and Agricultural Process Engineering. He has published 25 international and 40 national research papers in reputed journals.
Statement of the Problem: Investigating the effect of parboiling on de-hulling process and cooking qualities of millets. Millet grains are considered to be one of the most important sources of dietary proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fiber for people all over the world. The nutrient composition of millets compares well with other cereals. The tiny "grain" is gluten-free and contains nutrients such as magnesium, calcium, manganese, tryptophan, phosphorus, fiber and antioxidants.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: De-hulling of little millet (Panicum sumatrense) and foxtail millet (Setaria italic) is a cumbersome process since husk and bran layers are bound tightly on the endosperm and their removal needs a special treatment. To ease the milling process, these millets were subjected to hydrothermal treatment at different levels of soaking temperature (60, 70 and 800ºC), soaking time (6, 7 and 8 h), steaming periods (10, 15 and 20 min), shade dried and milled in a centrifugal de-huller. The milled samples were analyzed for hulling efficiency, head rice recovery, degree of parboiling, hardness, color, cooking time, water up take and swelling index using standard procedures.
Findings: Increase in hulling efficiency (20.8-26.5%) was recorded over control in little millet and foxtail millet (20.5–25.3%) and the head rice recovery enhanced by 26.7% and 24.8% in little millet and foxtail millet respectively over the range of experiments conducted. The increase in temperature of soaking, soaking time and steaming period increased the degree of parboiling, hardness (30.8–34.2 N in little millet and 32.6-34.5 N in foxtail millet) and cooking time (10.4-10.8 min) for both millets. Water uptake and swelling index decreased appreciably due to hydrothermal treatment. The treated samples were dark in colour compared to raw grains and the change in L*, a*, b* values were highly significant.
Conclusion & Significance: The parboiling treatment increased the hulling efficiency and enhanced the head rice recovery in little millet and fox tail millet
Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil
Time : 15:45-16:05
Aline Neutzling Brum has graduated in Biological Science, since 1997, she started to investigate tropical agriculture and animal production. She started her studies focusing in herd modeling and biostatistics looking for alternatives to promote rural development. During the last ten years, she was based on GAUG University in the Department for Animal Sciences in Germany participating in research for tropical areas. Actually, she is the Coordinator for Research and Investigation at Colonial Fungi Research Center and is working at the Federal University from Pelotas in Brazil.
This article is going to focus on cultivated mushrooms, describing the opportunities and facilities that mushroom cultivation develops in rural areas affected by economic crisis. The Colonial Fungi Research Center aims for research and rural development, which is located in Pelotas, South of Brazil. This area had an important contribution to chicken production until the end of last year. Considering the failure of the local chicken agroindustry, farmers are in debit and without expectation to production. The structure of chicken production can be adapted to mushrooms cultivation and this research center is putting efforts on this new way. Mushrooms have been widely used as food and very often as delicious and nutritious food. Their medicinal values include wound-healing, immunity-enhancement, and tumor-retarding effects. As the amount of wild mushrooms is rare in South of Brazil, cultivated mushrooms would not only provide food security, but also sustainable agriculture and more nutritious diets. The rapid growth and market expansion of the mushroom business is a great incentive of rural development driven by bio-innovation and technological diffusion. It is also an excellent example of rural economic development and poverty alleviation as well as typical recycle-economy and sustainable agriculture. One of the low-cost, appropriate technologies for rural development is the production of the tropical mushroom, in this case oyster mushroom. The expansion of the commercial production of the oyster mushroom could be the result of several complementary factors: technology available and climate favorable, manpower available and high demand for the product.